Cyber Laws of Different Countries

Cyber Laws of Different Countries

Different countries have enacted their own national cyber laws keeping in mind their own national requirements. Variety of these cyber laws have been influenced by broad framework principles provided by the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce.  The national cyber laws of different countries are detailed as under:-

Albania

Law 9880 of 25/02/2008 on Electronic Signatures (in English, official translation)

Law No. 9887 on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Algeria

Loi No 15-04 du 11 Rabie Ethan 1436 correspondant au 1er février 2015 fixant les règles générales relatives à la signature et à la certification électroniques (in French)

Civil Code (in French)

 

Andorra

Loi qualifiée 15/2003, du 18 décembre, sur la protection des données personnelles  Protection of Personal Data


Llei 6/2009, del 29 de desembre, de signatura electrònica (Protection of Electronic Signatures)

Llei 20/2014, del 16 d.octubre, reguladora de la contractació electrònica i dels operadors que desenvolupen la seva activitat econòmica en un espai digital (on regulating electronic contracting and operators that develop their economic activity in a digital space)

 

Angola

 

Antigua and Barbuda

Electronic Transactions Act 2006 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2013 (in English)

Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act 2006 (in English) 

The Forgery Act (in English)

Argentina

Codigo Civil y Comercial de la Nacion (in Spanish)

The Digital Signature Act (Law 25.506) (in Spanish)

Anteproyecto de ley Formato Digital de los Actos Jurídicos y Comercio Electrónico para la Republica Argentina (in Spanish)

Ley 25.326 de Protección de los Datos Personales (in Spanish)

Ley 26.388 de Ley de Delitos Informáticos (in Spanish) 

Armenia

On Electronic Document and Electronic Signature (in English)

Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Australia

Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (in English)

Privacy Act 1988 (in English)

Telecommunication (Interception and Access) Act No 114 of 1979 as amended in 2012 (in English)

Cybercrime Act 2001 [amended by the Cybercrime Legislation Amendment Act, 2012 (No. 120 of 2012), An Act to implement the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, and for other purposes (in English) 

Austria

Signaturgesetz – SigG, BGBl. I Nr. 190/1999 (in Dutch)

Datenschutzgesetz 2000 (in German)

 

Azerbaijan

Law on Digital Electronic Signature 2004 (in English)

Law on Personal Data 2010 (in Azerbaijani)

 

Bahamas

The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act (in English)

Data Protection (Privacy of Personal Information) Act 2003 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act 2003, Sections 9, 1, 12 (in English) 

Bahrain

Legislative Decree no. 28 of 2002 with respect to Electronic Transactions (in English)

 Law No. 60 of 2014 concerning Information Technology Crimes (in Arabic)

 

Bangladesh

The Information and Communication Technology Act, 2006 (in English)

 

Barbados

Electronic Transactions Act, 2001 (in English)

Data Protection Bill 2005 (in English)

The Constitution of Barbados

Electronic Transactions Act, 2001 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act of 2005 – CMA (in English) 

Belarus

Law on Electronic Documents No. 357-Z of 10 January 2000 (in Russian)

Law Of The Republic Of Belarus On Information, Informatization and Protection of information – Law no. 8517 (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Belgium

9 Juli 2001 Wet houdende vaststelling van bepaalde regels in verband met het juridisch kader voor elektronische handtekeningen en certificatiediensten (in French)

9 Juli 2001 Wet houdende vaststelling van bepaalde regels in verband met het juridisch kader voor elektronische handtekeningen en certificatiediensten (in Dutch)

Law on Privacy Protection in relation to the Processing of Personal Data (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Belize

Electronic Transactions Act, Chapter 290:01 – Revised Edition 2003 (in English)

 

Benin

Loi n°2009-09 du 22 mai 2009 portant organisation de la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

 

 

 

Bhutan

Bhutan Information, Communications and Media Act 2006 (in English)

Bhutan Information Communications and Media Act 2006 (in Dzongkha)

 

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

Commercial Code (in Spanish)

Civil Code (in Spanish)

Ley general de Telecomunicaciones, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación – Ley 167 de 08 agosto de 2011 (in Spanish)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Službeni Glasnik BiH 91/06 (Law of 14/11/2006) (in Bosnian)

Law on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

Law on the Protection of Personal Data (in Bosanski)

Botswana

Chapter 08:06 Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes (no 22) of 2007 (in English)

 

Brazil

Medida Provisória Nº 2.200-2, de 24 de Agosto de 2001 Institui a Infra-Estrutura de Chaves Públicas Brasileira – ICP-Brasil, e dá outras providências (in Portuguese)

Protection of Personal Data Bill 2011 (in Portuguese)

 

Brunei Darussalam

Electronic Transactions Act (revised in 2008) (in English)

Law for Protection of Personal Data (in English)

Law for Protection of Personal Data (in Bulgarian)

 

Bulgaria

Закон за Електронния Документ и Електронния Подпис (Обн., ДВ, бр. 34 от 2001 г.) (in Bulgarian)

 The Crimial Code (in English)

 

Burkina Faso

Loi N°045-2009/AN du 10 Novembre 2009 portant reglementation des services et des transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 010-2004/AN Portant Protection des Données à Caractère Personnel (in French)

 

Cape Verde

Decree-Law No. 33/2007 (in Portuguese)

Decree-Law No. 42/2006 (in Portuguese)

Decree-Law No. 44/2009 (in Portuguese)

Lei n° 133/V/2001 of 22 January 2001 (in Portuguese)

 

Cameroon

Loi No 2010/021 of 21 decembre 2010 Régissant le commerce électronique au Cameroun (in French)

Cybersecurity and Cybercrime Law from 2010 – Loi No 2010/012 (in French) 

Canada

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, S.C. 2000, c. 5 (in English and French)

Uniform Electronic Commerce Act 1999 (in English)

Ley 19.799 sobre documentos electrónicos, firma electrónica y servicios de certificación de dicha firma (in Spanish)

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (in English and French)

 

Chile

Law 20.217 (in Spanish)

Electronic Signatures Law of the People’s Republic of China of 2004 (in English)

Law 19.628 of 1999 (in Spanish)

 

China

The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Strengthening the Network Information Protection (2012)

 

Colombia

Law 527 of 1999 (in Spanish)

Law 588 of 2000 (in Spanish)

Civil Code (in Spanish)

Law 1266 of 2008- Habeas Data Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Costa Rica

Ley de Certificados, Firmas Digitales y Documentos Electrónicos, Ley No. 8454 (in Spanish)

Ley N° 63: Código Civil (in Spanish)

Political Constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica, consolidated version to October 5, 2005 (in English)

Constitución Política de la República de Costa Rica, versión refundida al 5 de octubre de 2005 (in Spanish)

 

Côte d’Ivoire

Loi n°2013-546 du 30 juillet 2013 relative aux transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 2013-450 du 19 juin 2013 relative à la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

Loi  No. 2013-451 du juin  2013 relative a la lutte contre la cybercriminalite 

Croatia

Electronic Signature Act (in English, provisional translation)

Act on Personal Data Protection (in English)

 

Cuba

Resolución 49/2001 del Ministro de la Informática y las Comunicaciones (in Spanish)

Proyecto el nuevo Código Penal (in Spanish) 

Cyprus

Law on the Legal Framework for Electronic Signatures and Associated Matters of 2004, Law No. 188(I)/2004 (in English, unofficial translation)

The Processing of Personal Data (Protection of the Individual) Law (in English)

 

Czech Republic

 

Zákon č. 227/2000 Sb., o elektronickém podpisu a o změně některých dalších zákonů (zákon o elektronickém podpisu) (in Czech)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in Czech)         

Law on Cyber Security (in English

                              

Denmark

Lov om elektroniske signaturer Nr. 417 (in Danish)

Act on Processing of Personal Data (in English)

 

Dominica

Electronic Transactions Act, Act 13 of 2013 (in English)

Electronic Evidence Act, Act 13 of 2010 (in English)

Electronic Funds Transfer Act No. 17 of 2013 (in English) 

 

Dominican Republic

Ley No.126-02, sobre el Comercio Electrónico, Documentos y Firmas Digitales, del 4 de septiembre de 2002 (in Spanish)

Ley No.53-07, sobre Crímenes y Delitos de AltaTecnología, del 23 de abril de 2007 (in Spanish) 

Ecuador

Ley de Comercio Electrónico, firmas electrónicas y mensajes de datos. Ley No. 2002-67 – Registro Oficial 577-S, 17 de abril de 2002 (in Spanish)

Protection of Privacy and Personal Data Bill 2016

 

Egypt

Law No 15 of 2004 on Electronic Signatures (in English)

 

El Salvador

Ley de firma electrónica de El Salvador (in Spanish)

Constitution of the Republic of El Salavador, 1983, as Amended to 2003, article 2 (in English)

 

Estonia

Digitaalallkirja seadus Vastu võetud 8. märtsil 2000. a.  – RT I 2000, 26, 150 – jõustunud 15. detsembril 2000 (in Estonian)

Tsiviilseadustiku üldosa seadus Vastu võetud 27. märtsil 2002. a  – RT I 2002, 35, 216 – jõustunud 1. juulil 2002 (in Estonian)

Data Protection Act (in English)

 

Fiji

Electronic Transactions Promulgation 2008 (in English)

Crimes Decree 2009 – Division 6 on Computer Offences – Ss 336 – 346 (in English) 

 

Finland

Laki vahvasta sähköisestä tunnistamisesta ja sähköisistä allekirjoituksista, 7.8.2009/617 (in Finnish)

Laki vahvasta sähköisestä tunnistamisesta ja sähköisistä allekirjoituksista, 7.8.2009/617 (in English, unofficial translation)

Personal Data Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

France

Loi No 2000-230 du 13 mars 2000 portant adaptation du droit de la preuve aux technologies de l’information et relative á la signature électronique (in French)

Décret no 2001-272 du mars 30, 2001 pris pour l’application de l’article 1316-4 du code civil relatif à la signature électronique (in French)

Law relating to the protection of individuals against the processing of personal data (in English)

Loi 78-17 du 6 janvier 1978 relative à l’informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés modifiée (in French)

 

Gabon

Loi n°001/2011 relative à la protection des données à

caractère personnel (in French)

Draft Law on Cybercrime

 

Gambia

Information and Communications Act  No. 2 of 2009 (in English)

 

Georgia

Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection (in English)

Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection (in Georgian)

 

Germany

VwVfG Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz, I B 25 (in German)

Federal Data Protection Act (in English)

Bundesdatenschutzgesetz – BDSG (in German)

 

Ghana

Electronic Transactions Act, Act No. 772 (in English)

Data Protection Act (Act No. 843) 2012 – DPA (in English)

 

Greece

Law on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (in English)

 

Grenada

Electronic Transactions Act, 2008 (in English)

Electronic Crimes Act, 2013 (in English) 

 

Guatemala

Ley para el Reconocimiento de las Comunicaciones y Firmas Electrónicas (in English)

 

Guinea

Loi sur les transactions électroniques, 06/2016 (in French)

Projet de loi sur la cybercriminalité

 

 

Guyana

Draft Electronic Commerce Act (in English)

 

Haiti

Décret du 29 janvier 2016 portant sur la signature électronique (in French)

 

Honduras

Ley Sobre Firma Electrónicas – Descreto No. 149-2013 (in Spanish)

Ley Sobre Comercio Electrónico (in Spanish)

Anteproyecto de Ley de Protección de Datos Personales y Acción de Hábeas Data de Honduras (in Spanish)

 

Hungary

  1. évi XXXV. Törvény az elektronikus aláírásró (in Hungarian)

Act on Informational Self-Determination and Freedom of Information (in English)

Criminal Code (in English) 

 

Iceland

Lög nr. 28/2001 um rafrænar umdirskriftir (in Icelandic)

Law on the Protection and Processing of Personal Data 1989 (in English)

 

India 

Information Technology Act 2000 (in English)

 

Indonesia

Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions (in English and Indonesian)

 

Iran (Islamic Republic of) 

Electronic Commerce Act 2004 (in English)

Electronic Commerce Act 2004 (in Persian)

Law on Electronic Commerce (in English)

Law 71063 on Computer Crimes (in Persian)

Computer Crimes Law (in English) 

 

Iraq

Law no. 78 of 2012 (in English)

 

Ireland

Electronic Commerce Act, 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act, 1988 (in English)       

Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act 2001 (in English)

 

Israel

Electronic Signature Law, 5761-2001 (in English, unofficial translation)

Privacy Protection Act 1981 (in English)

Computers Law of 1995 (in English) 

 

Italy

Decreto Legislativo 7 marzo 2005, n. 82 Codice dell’amministrazione digitale (in Italian)

 

Jamaica

Electronic Transactions Act No 15 of 2006 (in English)

The Constitution of Jamaica (in English)

Electronic Transactions Act No 15 of 2006 (in English)

Trade Act 1955 (in English)

Cybercrimes Act 2010 (in English) 

 

Japan

Law Concerning Electronic Signatures and Certification Services, Law No. 102 of 2000 (in English, unofficial translation)

Act on the Protection of Personal Information (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Jordan

Electronic Transactions Law No. 85 of 2001 (in English)

Information Systems Crime Law no 30 of  2010 (in Arabic)

 

Kazakhstan

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Electronic Document and Digital Signature, No. 307-II of 7 January 2003 (in English, unofficial translation)

Law on personal data and their protection, 21 May 2013 (in Russian)

 

Kenya

Kenya Information and Communication Act, 1998 (in English)

Data Protection Bill 2012 (in English)

Framework Act on Electronic Documents and Transactions Act No. 11461 (in English)

Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes Bill, 2014

 

Republic of Korea

Digital Signature Act No. 5792/1999 (in English)

Korea’s Personal Information Protection Act was promulgated in 2011 as amended (in English)

 

Kuwait

Law No. 20 of 2014 (in English)

Draft Law on Combating Internet Crime

 

Kyrgyzstan

Law on Personal Data 2008 (in English, unofficial transalation)

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Electronic Transactions Law 2012 (in English, unofficial tranlastion)

 

Latvia

 

Elektronisko dokumentu likums (in Latvian)

Law on Protection of Personal Data of Natural Persons (in English)

 

Liberia

Electronic Transactions Law (in English)

 

Liechtenstein

Gesetz vom 18. September 2003 über elektronische Signaturen – Signaturgesetz (in German)

Gesetz über die Abänderung des Datenschutzgesetzes, 2002 (in German)

 

Lithuania

Elektroninio parašo įstatymas 2000 m. liepos 11 d. Nr. VII-1822 (in Lithuanian)

Law on Legal Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Luxembourg

Loi du 14 août 2000 relative au commerce électronique modifiant le code civil, le nouveau code de procédure civile, le code de commerce, le code pénal et transposant la directive 1999/93 du 13 décembre 1999 relative à un cadre communautaire pour les signatures électroniques, la directive 2000/31/CE du 8 juin 2000 relative à certains aspects juridiques des services de la société de l’information, certaines dispositions de la directive 97/7/CEE du 20 mai 1997 concernant la vente à distance des biens et des services autres que les services financiers (in French)

Data Protection Law (in English)

 

Madagascar

Law N° 2014-024 on Electronic Transactions (in French)

Law N° 2014-025 on Electronic Signature (in French)

Loi No. 2014-38 (in French)

Loi n°2014-006 sur la lutte contre la cybercriminalité (in English) 

Malaysia

Electronic Commerce Act 2006 (in English)

Akta Perdagangan Elektronik 2006 (in Malay)

Digital Signature Act 1997 (in English)

Akta Tandatangan Digital 1997 (in Malay)

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (in English)

Computer Crimes Act 1997 (in English)

 

Malta

Electronic Commerce Act 2002 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2001 (in English)

 

Mauritania

Ordonnance n° 2006-031 relative aux instruments de paiement et aux opérations du commerce électroniques (in French)

 

Mauritius

Electronic Transactions Act 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2004 (in English)

 

Mexico

Código Civil Federal última reforma 24/12/2013 (in Spanish) – not found

Código de Comercio última reforma 13/06/2014 (in Spanish)

Código Fiscal de la Federación última reforma 14/03/2014 (in Spanish)

Ley de Firma Electrónica Avanzada publicada el 11 de enero de 2012  (in Spanish)

Ley Federal de Protección de Datos Personales en Posesión de los Particulares 2010 (in Spanish)

 

Monaco

Loi n° 1.383 du 2 août 2011 sur l’Economie Numérique (in French)

Act controlling personal data processing 1993 (in English)

 

Mongolia

Law on Electronic Signatures (in English)

 

Montenegro

Law on Electronic Signatures (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2008 (in English)

 

Morocco

Law no. 53-05 on Electronic Exchange of Legal Data (in French)

 

Myanmar

Electronic Transactions Law – The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 (in English)

Computer Science Development Law 1996

 

Nepal

Electronic Transactions Act, 2063 (2008) (in English)

Right to Information Act, 2064 (2007) (in English)

 

Netherlands

Wet van 8 mei 2003 tot aanpassing van Boek 3 en Boek 6 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek, de Telecommunicatiewet en de Wet op de Economische Delicten inzake elektronische handtekeningen ter uitvoering van richtlijn nr. 1999/93/ EG van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van de Europese Unie van 13 december 1999 betreffende een gemeenschappelijk kader voor elektronische handtekeningen (PbEG L 13) (Wet elektronische handtekeningen), Staatsblad 2003, 199 (in Dutch)

Personal Data Protection Act 1998 (in Dutch)

Personal Data Protection Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

New Zealand

Electronic Transactions Act 2002 (in English)

Privacy Act 1993 (in English)

 

Nicaragua

Anteprotecto de Ley de Comercio Electrónico, Junio 2006 – hay una actualización a Agosto 2009 (in Spanish)

Ley 729 Ley de Firma Electrónica, Agosto 2010 (in Spanish)

Ley No. 787 Ley de Protección de Datos Personales (in Spanish)

 

Nigeria

Electronic Commerce Bill 2011 (in English)

Cybercrime Act 2015 (in English)

 

Norway

Personal Data Act (2000, amended 2012) 

 

Freedom of Information Act (1970 as amended 2003) 

 

Security Act (1998) 

 

Oman

 

Electronic Transactions Law – Royal Decree no. 69 of 2008 (in English)

 

Pakistan

Electronic Transactions Ordinance, 2002 (in English)

Electronic Data Protection Act 2005 – Draft (in English)

Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016

 

Paraguay

Ley 4017/2010 Validez Jurídica de la Firma Electrónica, Firma Digital, los Mensajes de Datos y Expediente Electrónico (in Spanish)

Ley 1682/2001 Reglamenta la Informacion de Caracter Privado (in Spanish)

Código Penal 1160/1997 y la ley que lo modifica y amplía ley 4439/2011 (in Portuguese)
 

Peru

Law 27269 of 2000 – Law on Digital Signatures and Certification (in Spanish)

Ley N° 29733 – Ley de Protección de Datos Personales (in Spanish)

Ley Nº 30096 y 30171 – Ley de Delitos Informáticos (in Spanish) 

Philippines

Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (in English)

Data Privacy Act of 2012 (in English)

Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (in English)

Poland

Ustawa z dnia 18 września 2001 r. o podpisie

elektronicznym (in Polish)

Act on the Protection of Personal Data 1997 (in English)

 

Portugal

Decreto-lei no. 290-D/99, de 2 de Agosto (in Portuguese)

Decreto-lei no. 375/99, de 18 de Setembro (in Portuguese)

Decreto-lei no. 62/2003, de 3 de Abril (in Portuguese)

Lei da proteçao de dados pessoais 1991 (in Portuguese)

Law 109/2009 (in English)

 

Qatar

 

Decree Law No 16 of 2010 (in English, unofficial translation)

Law No. 13 of 2016 Concerning Privacy and Protection of Personal Data

Cybercrime Prevention Law (Law No. 14 of 2014) (in Arabic)

Telecommunications Law (No. 34) 2006 (in English and Arabic)

 

Republic of Moldova

Legea Republicii Moldova, cu privire la documentul electronic şi semnătura digitală, Nr. 264-XV din 15 iulie 2004 (in Romanian)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2007 (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Romania

Lege nr. 455 din 18 iulie 2001 privind semnătura electronică (in Romanian)

Law on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data etc (2001)

Law No. 161/2003 (in English) 

Russian Federation

Federal Law No. 63-FZ on electronic signatures (in English, unofficial translation)

Federal Law No. 149-FZ Information, Information Technologies and Protection of Information (in English)

Federal Law Regarding Personal Data 2006 (in English)

Criminal Code 1996 (in English 

Rwanda

Law No. 18 of 2010 (in English, French and Kinyarwanda)

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Electronic Transactions Act 2011 (in English)

Electronics Crimes (Amendment) Bill 2012 (in English

Saint Lucia

Data Protection Act 2011 (in English)

Constitution of Saint Lucia

Electronic Crimes Bill 2009 (in English)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Electronic Transactions Act 2007 (in English)

 

Samoa

Electronic Transactions Act 2008 (in English)

 The Telecommunication Act No 20/2005 lately amended in 2008 (in English)

 

San Marino

Legge 20 luglio 2005, n. 115 sul documento informatico e la firma elettronica (in Italian)

Legge 29 maggio 2013 n.58 – Legge sull’uso delle comunicazioni elettroniche e dell’e-commerce (in Italian)

 

Saudi Arabia

Electronic Transactions Law No. 18 of 2007 (in English)

Law No. 79 on Combating Information Technology Crime Law 2007 (in English 

Senegal

Loi N°2008-08 du 25 janvier 2008 sur les transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 2008-12 du 25 janvier 2008 sur la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

 

Serbia

Electronic Signature Law (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2008 (in English)

 

Seychelles

Electronic Transactions Act 2001 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2003 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act No. 17 of 1998 (in English) 

Singapore

Electronic Transactions Act 2010, Cap 88 (in English)

Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (in English)

Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act (Cap 50A) Revised in 2007 (in English 

Slovakia

Zakon c. 215/2002 Z.z.o elektronickom podpise a o zmene a doplneni niektorych zakonov (in Slovak)

Act on the Protection of Personal Data 1992 (in English)

Personal Data Protection Act 1990 (in English)

 

Slovenia

Zakon o elektronskem poslovanju in elektronskem podpisu (uradno prečiščeno besedilo), Uradni list Republike Slovenije št. 98/2004 (in Slovenian)

Zakon o elektronskem poslovanju na trgu, Uradni list Republike Slovenije št. 61/2006 (in Slovenian)

 

South Africa

Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2002 (in English)

 

 

Spain

Ley 59/2003, de 19 de diciembre, de firma electrónican (in Spanish)

Organic Law 15/1999 on Personal Data Protection (in Spanish)

Organic Law 15/1999 on Personal Data Protection (in English, unofficial translation)

 Law 25/2007 on data retention (in Spanish)

 

Sri Lanka

Electronic Transactions Act, No 19 of 2006 (in English)

Payment Devices Frauds Act 2006 (in English)

Computer Crime Act No 24 2007 (in English )

 

Sudan

Electronic Transactions Act, 2007 (in English)

Cyber Crimes Act 2007 (in English) 

Suriname

The Constitution of the Republic of Suriname, Article 17 (in English)

Telecommunications Act – No. 151 of 2004 (in Dutch 

Sweden

Lag (2000:832) om kvalificerade elektroniska signaturer (in Swedish)

Personal Data Act 1998 (in English)

 

Switzerland

Bundesgesetz vom 19. Dezember 2003 über

Zertifizierungsdienste im Bereich der elektronischen Signatur – ZertEs (in German)

Federal Act on Data Protection, 1992 (in English)

 

Thailand

Electronic Transactions Act 2001 (in English)

 

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Law on Electronic Commerce 2007 (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Tonga

Computer Crimes Act 2003 (in English)

 

Trinidad and Tobago                                                                                

Electronic Transactions Act, No. 6 of 2011, Chap 22:05 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2011 (in English)

The Constitution of the Rpublic of Trinidad and Tobago (in English)

Trinidad and Tobago Cyber Security Agency Bill, 2015 (in English)

The Cybercrime Bill 2015 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act No. 86 of 2000 (in English

Tunisia

 Law no 83 of 2000 on Electronic Commerce and Exchanges (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Turkey

Elektronik Imza Kanunu No 5070 (in Turkish)

Law on the Regulation of E-commerce, Law No. 6563 (in Turkish)

Turkish Criminal Law (in English) 

Turkmenistan

Law on Electronic Documents (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Uganda

Electronic Signatures Act, 2011 (in English)

The Data Protection and Privacy Act, 2019 (in English)

Computer Misuse Act, 2011 (in English) 

Ukraine

On the electronic digital signature No. 852-IV of 22 May 2003 (in English) broken link

On the electronic digital signature No. 852-IV of 22 May 2003 (in Ukranian)   

On Electronic Documents and Electronic Document Circulation No. 851-IV of 22 May 2003 (in Ukranian)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2011 (in English)

 

United Arab Emirates 

Federal Law no. 1 of 2006 on Electronic Commerce and Transactions (in English) – incorrect link

 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

 Network and Information Systems Regulations of 2018 (NIS Regulations)

 

Electronic Communications Act 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act 1998 (in English)

 

United States of America

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-SIGN), 15 U.S.C. §§ 7001-7003 (in English)

Privacy Act of 1974 (in English)

 

Uruguay

Ley N° 16736

La Ley 18331 Protección de Datos Personales y Acción de Habeas Data”del 11 agosto del año 2008 y el Decreto reglamentario 414/2009 (in Spanish)

 

Vanuatu

Electronic Transactions Act No 24 of 2000 (in English)

 

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

LEY ESPECIAL CONTRA LOS DELITOS INFORMÁTICOS, 2001  (in Spanish)

Ley contra la Delincuencia Organizada 2005 (in Spanish)

Viet Nam

Law on E-Transactions 2005 (in English)

Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights 2010 (in English)

 

Yemen

Law of the Right of Access to Information 2012 (in English)

 

Zambia

The Cybersecurity And Cybercrimes Draft Bill, 2017

The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2009

Zimbabwe

Draft Data Protection Bill 2016

The Electronic Transactions and Electronic Commerce Bill , 2013