Cyber Laws of Different Countries

Cyber Laws of Different Countries

Different countries have enacted their own national cyber laws keeping in mind their own national requirements. Variety of these cyber laws have been influenced by broad framework principles provided by the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce.  The national cyber laws of different countries are detailed as under:-

Albania

Law 9880 of 25/02/2008 on Electronic Signatures (in English, official translation)

Law No. 9887 on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Algeria

Loi No 15-04 du 11 Rabie Ethan 1436 correspondant au 1er février 2015 fixant les règles générales relatives à la signature et à la certification électroniques (in French)

Civil Code (in French)

 

Andorra

Llei 6/2009 del 29 de desembre, de signatura electronica (in Catalan)

Loi qualifiée 15/2003, du 18 décembre, sur la protection des données personnelles (in French)

Llei 15/2003, del 18 de desembre, qualificada de protecció de dades personals (in Catalan)

 

Angola

Lei No. 22/11 da Protecção de Dados Pessoais de 17 de Junho (in Portuguese)

 

Antigua and Barbuda

Electronic Transactions Act 2006 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2013 (in English)

Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2013

 

Argentina

Codigo Civil y Comercial de la Nacion (in Spanish)

The Digital Signature Act (Law 25.506) (in Spanish)

Anteproyecto de ley Formato Digital de los Actos Jurídicos y Comercio Electrónico para la Republica Argentina (in Spanish)

Ley 25.326 de Protección de los Datos Personales (in Spanish)

 

Armenia

On Electronic Document and Electronic Signature (in English)

Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Australia

Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (in English)

Privacy Act 1988 (in English)

 

Austria

Signaturgesetz – SigG, BGBl. I Nr. 190/1999 (in Dutch)

Datenschutzgesetz 2000 (in German)

 

Azerbaijan

Law on Digital Electronic Signature 2004 (in English)

Law on Personal Data 2010 (in Azerbaijani)

 

Bahamas

The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act (in English)

Data Protection (Privacy of Personal Information) Act 2003 (in English)

 

Bahrain

Legislative Decree no. 28 of 2002 with respect to Electronic Transactions (in English)

 

Bangladesh

The Information and Communication Technology Act, 2006 (in English)

 

Barbados

Electronic Transactions Act, 2001 (in English)

Data Protection Bill 2005 (in English)

The Constitution of Barbados

Electronic Transactions Act, 2001 (in English)

 

Belarus

Law on Electronic Documents No. 357-Z of 10 January 2000 (in Russian)

Law Of The Republic Of Belarus On Information, Informatization and Protection of information – Law no. 8517 (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Belgium

9 Juli 2001 Wet houdende vaststelling van bepaalde regels in verband met het juridisch kader voor elektronische handtekeningen en certificatiediensten (in French)

9 Juli 2001 Wet houdende vaststelling van bepaalde regels in verband met het juridisch kader voor elektronische handtekeningen en certificatiediensten (in Dutch)

Law on Privacy Protection in relation to the Processing of Personal Data (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Belize

Electronic Transactions Act, Chapter 290:01 – Revised Edition 2003 (in English)

 

Benin

Loi relative aux communications électroniques et à la poste 2014 (in French)

Loi n°2009-09 du 22 mai 2009 portant organisation de la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

 

 

 

Bhutan

Bhutan Information, Communications and Media Act 2006 (in English)

Bhutan Information Communications and Media Act 2006 (in Dzongkha)

Bhutan Information Communications and Media Act 2006 (in English)

Bhutan Information Communications and Media Act 2006 (in Dzongkha)

 

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

Commercial Code (in Spanish)

Civil Code (in Spanish)

Ley general de Telecomunicaciones, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación – Ley 167 de 08 agosto de 2011 (in Spanish)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Službeni Glasnik BiH 91/06 (Law of 14/11/2006) (in Bosnian)

Law on the Protection of Personal Data (in English)

Law on the Protection of Personal Data (in Bosanski)

 

Brazil

Medida Provisória Nº 2.200-2, de 24 de Agosto de 2001 Institui a Infra-Estrutura de Chaves Públicas Brasileira – ICP-Brasil, e dá outras providências (in Portuguese)

Protection of Personal Data Bill 2011 (in Portuguese)

 

Brunei Darussalam

Electronic Transactions Act (revised in 2008) (in English)

Law for Protection of Personal Data (in English)

Law for Protection of Personal Data (in Bulgarian)

 

Bulgaria

Закон за Електронния Документ и Електронния Подпис (Обн., ДВ, бр. 34 от 2001 г.) (in Bulgarian)

 

Burkina Faso

Loi N°045-2009/AN du 10 Novembre 2009 portant reglementation des services et des transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 010-2004/AN Portant Protection des Données à Caractère Personnel (in French)

 

Cape Verde

Decree-Law No. 33/2007 (in Portuguese)

Decree-Law No. 42/2006 (in Portuguese)

Decree-Law No. 44/2009 (in Portuguese)

Lei n° 133/V/2001 of 22 January 2001 (in Portuguese)

 

Cameroon

Loi No 2010/021 of 21 decembre 2010 Régissant le commerce électronique au Cameroun (in French)

 

Canada

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, S.C. 2000, c. 5 (in English and French)

Uniform Electronic Commerce Act 1999 (in English)

Ley 19.799 sobre documentos electrónicos, firma electrónica y servicios de certificación de dicha firma (in Spanish)

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (in English and French)

 

Chile

Law 20.217 (in Spanish)

Electronic Signatures Law of the People’s Republic of China of 2004 (in English)

Law 19.628 of 1999 (in Spanish)

 

China

The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Strengthening the Network Information Protection (2012)

 

Colombia

Law 527 of 1999 (in Spanish)

Law 588 of 2000 (in Spanish)

Civil Code (in Spanish)

Law 1266 of 2008- Habeas Data Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Costa Rica

Ley de Certificados, Firmas Digitales y Documentos Electrónicos, Ley No. 8454 (in Spanish)

Ley N° 63: Código Civil (in Spanish)

Political Constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica, consolidated version to October 5, 2005 (in English)

Constitución Política de la República de Costa Rica, versión refundida al 5 de octubre de 2005 (in Spanish)

 

Côte d’Ivoire

Loi n°2013-546 du 30 juillet 2013 relative aux transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 2013-450 du 19 juin 2013 relative à la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

 

Croatia

Electronic Signature Act (in English, provisional translation)

Act on Personal Data Protection (in English)

 

Cuba

Resolución 49/2001 del Ministro de la Informática y las Comunicaciones (in Spanish)

 

Cyprus

Law on the Legal Framework for Electronic Signatures and Associated Matters of 2004, Law No. 188(I)/2004 (in English, unofficial translation)

The Processing of Personal Data (Protection of the Individual) Law (in English)

 

Czech Republic

 

Zákon č. 227/2000 Sb., o elektronickém podpisu a o změně některých dalších zákonů (zákon o elektronickém podpisu) (in Czech)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in Czech)

                             

Denmark

Lov om elektroniske signaturer Nr. 417 (in Danish)

Act on Processing of Personal Data (in English)

 

Dominica

Electronic Transactions Act, Act 13 of 2013 (in English)

Electronic Evidence Act, Act 13 of 2010 (in English)

 

Dominican Republic

Ley No.126-02, sobre el Comercio Electrónico, Documentos y Firmas Digitales, del 4 de septiembre de 2002 (in Spanish)

 

Ecuador

Ley de Comercio Electrónico, firmas electrónicas y mensajes de datos. Ley No. 2002-67 – Registro Oficial 577-S, 17 de abril de 2002 (in Spanish)

Protection of Privacy and Personal Data Bill 2016

 

Egypt

Law No 15 of 2004 on Electronic Signatures (in English)

 

El Salvador

Ley de firma electrónica de El Salvador (in Spanish)

Constitution of the Republic of El Salavador, 1983, as Amended to 2003, article 2 (in English)

 

Estonia

Digitaalallkirja seadus Vastu võetud 8. märtsil 2000. a.  – RT I 2000, 26, 150 – jõustunud 15. detsembril 2000 (in Estonian)

Tsiviilseadustiku üldosa seadus Vastu võetud 27. märtsil 2002. a  – RT I 2002, 35, 216 – jõustunud 1. juulil 2002 (in Estonian)

Data Protection Act (in English)

 

Fiji

Electronic Transactions Promulgation 2008 (in English)

 

Finland

Laki vahvasta sähköisestä tunnistamisesta ja sähköisistä allekirjoituksista, 7.8.2009/617 (in Finnish)

Laki vahvasta sähköisestä tunnistamisesta ja sähköisistä allekirjoituksista, 7.8.2009/617 (in English, unofficial translation)

Personal Data Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

France

Loi No 2000-230 du 13 mars 2000 portant adaptation du droit de la preuve aux technologies de l’information et relative á la signature électronique (in French)

Décret no 2001-272 du mars 30, 2001 pris pour l’application de l’article 1316-4 du code civil relatif à la signature électronique (in French)

Law relating to the protection of individuals against the processing of personal data (in English)

Loi 78-17 du 6 janvier 1978 relative à l’informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés modifiée (in French)

 

Gabon

Loi n°001/2011 relative à la protection des données à

caractère personnel (in French)

 

Gambia

Information and Communications Act  No. 2 of 2009 (in English)

 

Georgia

Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection (in English)

Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection (in Georgian)

 

Germany

VwVfG Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz, I B 25 (in German)

Federal Data Protection Act (in English)

Bundesdatenschutzgesetz – BDSG (in German)

 

Ghana

Electronic Transactions Act, Act No. 772 (in English)

Data Protection Act (Act No. 843) 2012 – DPA (in English)

 

Greece

Law on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (in English)

 

Grenada

Electronic Transactions Act, 2008 (in English)

 

Guatemala

Ley para el Reconocimiento de las Comunicaciones y Firmas Electrónicas (in English)

 

Guinea

Loi sur les transactions électroniques, 06/2016 (in French)

 

 

Guyana

Draft Electronic Commerce Act (in English)

 

Haiti

Décret du 29 janvier 2016 portant sur la signature électronique (in French)

 

Honduras

Ley Sobre Firma Electrónicas – Descreto No. 149-2013 (in Spanish)

Ley Sobre Comercio Electrónico (in Spanish)

Anteproyecto de Ley de Protección de Datos Personales y Acción de Hábeas Data de Honduras (in Spanish)

 

Hungary

  1. évi XXXV. Törvény az elektronikus aláírásró (in Hungarian)

Act on Informational Self-Determination and Freedom of Information (in English)

 

Iceland

Lög nr. 28/2001 um rafrænar umdirskriftir (in Icelandic)

Law on the Protection and Processing of Personal Data 1989 (in English)

 

India

Information Technology Act 2000 (in English)

 

Indonesia

Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions (in English and Indonesian)

 

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Electronic Commerce Act 2004 (in English)

Electronic Commerce Act 2004 (in Persian)

Law on Electronic Commerce (in English)

Law 71063 on Computer Crimes (in Persian)

 

 

Iraq

Law no. 78 of 2012 (in English)

 

Ireland

Electronic Commerce Act, 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act, 1988 (in English)

 

Israel

Electronic Signature Law, 5761-2001 (in English, unofficial translation)

Privacy Protection Act 1981 (in English)

 

 

Italy

Decreto Legislativo 7 marzo 2005, n. 82 Codice dell’amministrazione digitale (in Italian)

 

Jamaica

Electronic Transactions Act No 15 of 2006 (in English)

The Constitution of Jamaica (in English)

Electronic Transactions Act No 15 of 2006 (in English)

Trade Act 1955 (in English)

 

Japan

Law Concerning Electronic Signatures and Certification Services, Law No. 102 of 2000 (in English, unofficial translation)

Act on the Protection of Personal Information (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Jordan

Electronic Transactions Law No. 85 of 2001 (in English)

 

Kazakhstan

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Electronic Document and Digital Signature, No. 307-II of 7 January 2003 (in English, unofficial translation)

Law on personal data and their protection, 21 May 2013 (in Russian)

 

Kenya

Kenya Information and Communication Act, 1998 (in English)

Data Protection Bill 2012 (in English)

Framework Act on Electronic Documents and Transactions Act No. 11461 (in English)

 

Republic of Korea

Digital Signature Act No. 5792/1999 (in English)

Korea’s Personal Information Protection Act was promulgated in 2011 as amended (in English)

 

Kuwait

Law No. 20 of 2014 (in English)

 

Kyrgyzstan

Law on Personal Data 2008 (in English, unofficial transalation)

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Electronic Transactions Law 2012 (in English, unofficial tranlastion)

 

Latvia

 

Elektronisko dokumentu likums (in Latvian)

Law on Protection of Personal Data of Natural Persons (in English)

 

Liberia

Electronic Transactions Law (in English)

 

Liechtenstein

Gesetz vom 18. September 2003 über elektronische Signaturen – Signaturgesetz (in German)

Gesetz über die Abänderung des Datenschutzgesetzes, 2002 (in German)

 

Lithuania

Elektroninio parašo įstatymas 2000 m. liepos 11 d. Nr. VII-1822 (in Lithuanian)

Law on Legal Protection of Personal Data (in English)

 

Luxembourg

Loi du 14 août 2000 relative au commerce électronique modifiant le code civil, le nouveau code de procédure civile, le code de commerce, le code pénal et transposant la directive 1999/93 du 13 décembre 1999 relative à un cadre communautaire pour les signatures électroniques, la directive 2000/31/CE du 8 juin 2000 relative à certains aspects juridiques des services de la société de l’information, certaines dispositions de la directive 97/7/CEE du 20 mai 1997 concernant la vente à distance des biens et des services autres que les services financiers (in French)

Data Protection Law (in English)

 

Madagascar

Law N° 2014-024 on Electronic Transactions (in French)

Law N° 2014-025 on Electronic Signature (in French)

Loi No. 2014-38 (in French)

 

Malaysia

Electronic Commerce Act 2006 (in English)

Akta Perdagangan Elektronik 2006 (in Malay)

Digital Signature Act 1997 (in English)

Akta Tandatangan Digital 1997 (in Malay)

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (in English)

 

Malta

Electronic Commerce Act 2002 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2001 (in English)

 

Mauritania

Ordonnance n° 2006-031 relative aux instruments de paiement et aux opérations du commerce électroniques (in French)

 

Mauritius

Electronic Transactions Act 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2004 (in English)

 

Mexico

Código Civil Federal última reforma 24/12/2013 (in Spanish)

Código de Comercio última reforma 13/06/2014 (in Spanish)

Código Fiscal de la Federación última reforma 14/03/2014 (in Spanish)

Ley de Firma Electrónica Avanzada publicada el 11 de enero de 2012  (in Spanish)

Ley Federal de Protección de Datos Personales en Posesión de los Particulares 2010 (in Spanish)

 

Monaco

Loi n° 1.383 du 2 août 2011 sur l’Economie Numérique (in French)

Act controlling personal data processing 1993 (in English)

 

Mongolia

Law on Electronic Signatures (in English)

 

Montenegro

Law on Electronic Signatures (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2008 (in English)

 

Morocco

Law no. 53-05 on Electronic Exchange of Legal Data (in French)

 

Myanmar

Electronic Transactions Law – The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 (in English)

 

Nepal

Electronic Transactions Act, 2063 (2008) (in English)

Right to Information Act, 2064 (2007) (in English)

 

Netherlands

Wet van 8 mei 2003 tot aanpassing van Boek 3 en Boek 6 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek, de Telecommunicatiewet en de Wet op de Economische Delicten inzake elektronische handtekeningen ter uitvoering van richtlijn nr. 1999/93/ EG van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van de Europese Unie van 13 december 1999 betreffende een gemeenschappelijk kader voor elektronische handtekeningen (PbEG L 13) (Wet elektronische handtekeningen), Staatsblad 2003, 199 (in Dutch)

Personal Data Protection Act 1998 (in English, unofficial translation)

Personal Data Protection Act (in English, unofficial translation)

 

New Zealand

Electronic Transactions Act 2002 (in English)

Privacy Act 1993 (in English)

 

Nicaragua

Anteprotecto de Ley de Comercio Electrónico, Junio 2006 – hay una actualización a Agosto 2009 (in Spanish)

Ley 729 Ley de Firma Electrónica, Agosto 2010 (in Spanish)

Ley No. 787 Ley de Protección de Datos Personales (in Spanish)

 

Nigeria

Electronic Commerce Bill 2011 (in English)

 

Norway

Lov om elektronisk signatur (esignaturloven) av 15. juni 2001 nr. 81 (in Norwegian)

Personal Data Act 2000 (in English)

 

Oman

 

Royal Decree no. 69 of 2008 (in English)

 

Pakistan

Electronic Transactions Ordinance, 2002 (in English)

Electronic Data Protection Act 2005 – Draft (in English)

 

Paraguay

Ley 4017/2010 Validez Jurídica de la Firma Electrónica, Firma Digital, los Mensajes de Datos y Expediente Electrónico (in Spanish)

Ley 1682/2001 Reglamenta la Informacion de Caracter Privado (in Spanish)

 

Peru

Law 27269 of 2000 – Law on Digital Signatures and Certification (in Spanish)

Ley N° 29733 – Ley de Protección de Datos Personales (in Spanish)

 

Philippines

Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (in English)

Data Privacy Act of 2012 (in English)

 

Poland

Ustawa z dnia 18 września 2001 r. o podpisie

elektronicznym (in Polish)

Act on the Protection of Personal Data 1997 (in English)

 

Portugal

Decreto-lei no. 290-D/99, de 2 de Agosto (in Portuguese)

Decreto-lei no. 375/99, de 18 de Setembro (in Portuguese)

Decreto-lei no. 62/2003, de 3 de Abril (in Portuguese)

Lei da proteçao de dados pessoais 1991 (in Portuguese)

 

Qatar

 

Decree Law No 16 of 2010 (in English, unofficial translation)

Law No. 13 of 2016 Concerning Privacy and Protection of Personal Data

 

Republic of Moldova

Legea Republicii Moldova, cu privire la documentul electronic şi semnătura digitală, Nr. 264-XV din 15 iulie 2004 (in Romanian)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2007 (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Romania

Lege nr. 455 din 18 iulie 2001 privind semnătura electronică (in Romanian)

Law on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data etc (2001)

 

Russian Federation

Federal Law No. 63-FZ on electronic signatures (in English, unofficial translation)

Federal Law No. 149-FZ Information, Information Technologies and Protection of Information (in English)

Federal Law Regarding Personal Data 2006 (in English)

 

Rwanda

Law No. 18 of 2010 (in English, French and Kinyarwanda)

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Electronic Transactions Act 2011 (in English)

 

Saint Lucia

Data Protection Act 2011 (in English)

Constitution of Saint Lucia

 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Electronic Transactions Act 2007 (in English)

 

Samoa

Electronic Transactions Act 2008 (in English)

 

San Marino

Legge 20 luglio 2005, n. 115 sul documento informatico e la firma elettronica (in Italian)

Legge 29 maggio 2013 n.58 – Legge sull’uso delle comunicazioni elettroniche e dell’e-commerce (in Italian)

 

Saudi Arabia

Electronic Transactions Law No. 18 of 2007 (in English)

 

Senegal

Loi N°2008-08 du 25 janvier 2008 sur les transactions électroniques (in French)

Loi n° 2008-12 du 25 janvier 2008 sur la protection des données à caractère personnel (in French)

 

Serbia

Electronic Signature Law (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2008 (in English)

 

Seychelles

Electronic Transactions Act 2001 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2003 (in English)

 

Singapore

Electronic Transactions Act 2010, Cap 88 (in English)

Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (in English)

 

Slovakia

Zakon c. 215/2002 Z.z.o elektronickom podpise a o zmene a doplneni niektorych zakonov (in Slovak)

Act on the Protection of Personal Data 1992 (in English)

Personal Data Protection Act 1990 (in English)

 

Slovenia

Zakon o elektronskem poslovanju in elektronskem podpisu (uradno prečiščeno besedilo), Uradni list Republike Slovenije št. 98/2004 (in Slovenian)

Zakon o elektronskem poslovanju na trgu, Uradni list Republike Slovenije št. 61/2006 (in Slovenian)

 

South Africa

Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2002 (in English)

Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013

 

Spain

Ley 59/2003, de 19 de diciembre, de firma electrónican (in Spanish)

Organic Law 15/1999 on Personal Data Protection (in Spanish)

Organic Law 15/1999 on Personal Data Protection (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Sri Lanka

Electronic Transactions Act, No 19 of 2006 (in English)

 

Sudan

Electronic Transactions Act, 2007 (in English)

 

Suriname

The Constitution of the Republic of Suriname, Article 17 (in English)

 

Sweden

Lag (2000:832) om kvalificerade elektroniska signaturer (in Swedish)

Personal Data Act 1998 (in English)

 

Switzerland

Bundesgesetz vom 19. Dezember 2003 über

Zertifizierungsdienste im Bereich der elektronischen Signatur – ZertEs (in German)

Federal Act on Data Protection, 1992 (in English)

 

Thailand

Electronic Transactions Act 2001 (in English)

 

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Law on Electronic Commerce 2007 (in English)

Law on Personal Data Protection (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Tonga

Evidence (Amendment) Act 2003 (in English)

 

Trinidad and Tobago

Electronic Transactions Act, No. 6 of 2011, Chap 22:05 (in English)

Data Protection Act 2011 (in English)

The Constitution of the Rpublic of Trinidad and Tobago (in English)

Tunisia

 

Law 63/2004 (in French)

 

Turkey

Elektronik Imza Kanunu No 5070 (in Turkish)

Law on the Regulation of E-commerce, Law No. 6563 (in Turkish)

 

Turkmenistan

Law on Electronic Documents (in English, unofficial translation)

 

Uganda

Electronic Signatures Act, 2011 (in English)

The Data Protection and Privacy Bill, 2015 (in English)

 

Ukraine

On the electronic digital signature No. 852-IV of 22 May 2003 (in English)

On the electronic digital signature No. 852-IV of 22 May 2003 (in Ukranian)  

On Electronic Documents and Electronic Document Circulation No. 851-IV of 22 May 2003 (in Ukranian)

Law on Personal Data Protection 2011 (in English)

 

United Arab Emirates

Federal Law no. 1 of 2006 on Electronic Commerce and Transactions (in English)

 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Electronic Communications Act 2000 (in English)

Data Protection Act 1998 (in English)

 

 

United States of America

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-SIGN), 15 U.S.C. §§ 7001-7003 (in English)

Privacy Act of 1974 (in English)

 

Uruguay

Ley 17243 (in Spanish)

Ley 18.600  (in Spanish)

La Ley 18331 Protección de Datos Personales y Acción de Habeas Data”del 11 agosto del año 2008 y el Decreto reglamentario 414/2009 (in Spanish)

 

Vanuatu

Electronic Transactions Act No 24 of 2000 (in English)

 

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Ley de Mensajes de Datos y Firma Electrónica del año 2001 (in Spanish)

 

Viet Nam

Law on E-Transactions 2005 (in English)

Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights 2010 (in English)

 

Yemen

Law of the Right of Access to Information 2012 (in English)

 

Zambia

Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2009 (in English)

The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act Number 21 of 2009 – the Electronic

Communications Act (in English)

 

Zimbabwe

Draft Data Protection Bill 2016